[citation needed] Seeds can germinate down to 1–3 °C. Toronto: Champlain Society. For clothing, in some instances, hemp is mixed with lyocell. Industrial hemp is pest and disease resistant; partly due to the fact it grows so fast, Low lignin levels enable environmentally friendly bleaching without the use of chlorine, Far more fibre can be harvested from hemp than cotton or flax using the same amount of land, Less stretch, so clothing retains its shape, When dyed, it retains colour better than cotton. The short fibers produced during the separation process are known as tow and the long fibres are called line fibre. Abaca, (Musa textilis), plant of the family Musaceae, and its fibre, which is second in importance among the leaf fibre group. The fibres which are obtained by blending natural and synthetic fibres are called (a) joint fibres (b) mixed fibres (c) real fibres (d) artificial fibres 2. If you have a hemp shirt or a hemp product, the made fiber is the hemp fiber. [15], FAO argue that an optimum yield of hemp fiber is more than 2 tonnes per ha, while average yields are around 650 kg/ha. Hemp fiber is stronger and softer than cotton, lasts twice as long as cotton, and will not mildew” (HempBasic.com). Hemp. Decorticators enable the leaves to be left on the stalks during the breaking, although this makes for a messier process requiring more sorting after completion. [166], In Japan, hemp was historically used as paper and a fiber crop. Hemp's use as a wood substitute will contribute to preserving biodiversity. The soil should have available 89 to 135 kg/ha of nitrogen, 46 kg/ha phosphorus, 67 kg/ha potassium, and 17 kg/ha sulfur. [159] Much of the hemp used was cultivated in Kentucky and the Midwest. It is sown in the spring and harvested at the end of the summer when fully ripe. For example, the Lotus Eco Elise[40] all, June 2010", What Farmers Need to Know About Growing Hemp(https://www.agriculture.com), "Hemp vs Marijuana: The Important Differences Explained", "The man behind the marijuana ban for all the wrong reasons", "UK Flax and Hemp production: The impact of changes in support measures on the competitiveness and future potential of UK fibre production and industrial use", "Industrial Hemp Production and Management", "The Genetic Structure of Marijuana and Hemp", "Genetic Variation in Hemp and marijuana (, "Developing Insect Pest Management Systems for Hemp in the United States: A Work in Progress", "HIA: Resources: Education: FAQs & Facts: FAQs: Answers", "D. Risula, and others, Saskatchewan Ministry of Agriculture, October 2009", "Lawmakers legalize industrial hemp farming in Greece: Prospects & Opportunities", "The European Hemp Industry: Cultivation, processing and applications for fibres, shivs and seeds", "Agriculture in the European Union, Statistical and Economic Information 2011, European Union Directorate-General for Agriculture and Rural Development, page 283", "Growing Industrial Hemp in Ontario, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Canada, 2008", "Natural Fibers: Hemp Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2009", "Drugs, Poisons and Controlled Substances (Industrial Hemp) Regulations 2008", "Guidelines for engaging in the commercial production of industrial hemp in Queensland", "Western Australian Legislation - Industrial Hemp Act 2004", "Opportunities to engage in commercial low THC hemp fibre and seed production in NSW", "Government of Alberta: Industrial Hemp Production in Canada, February 2, 2010", "Where the heck is hemp?, The Alberta Express, April 18th, 2007", "Manitoba Harvest 2007 Peoples Choice, Eco Libris, Oct 8th, 2007", "Hemp: a plant still unknown (in French)", Jordbruksverket: 2.1–2.3, 2.5 Marknadssituationen för spannmål, oljeväxter, proteingrödor, ris,2011-03-10, (Swedish Board of Agriculture, Report from an expert group in the European Union about the market situation for a number of agricultural products. [87] [161], Hemp for Victory, a short documentary produced by the United States Department of Agriculture during World War II, 1942 United States Department of Agriculture War Board Letter of appreciation to Joe "Daddy Burt" Burton, a Kentucky hemp farmer for his support of the World War II Hemp for Victory campaign. The water requirement is 300–500 l/kg dry matter. ), fibre quality, oil/seed yield, etc. In 1948, marijuana was restricted as a narcotic drug. [75] As the names imply, they target the stems reducing the structural integrity of the plant. 480 BC) reported that the inhabitants of Scythia would often inhale the vapors of hemp-seed smoke, both as ritual and for their own pleasurable recreation. The hemp fibre is a bast or phloem fibre obtained from the stems of the plants. Retting can be carried out a number of ways: Once the retting process is complete, the stalks are dried to a moisture content of less than 15% and bailed. [145][141], Another claim is that Mellon, Secretary of the Treasury and the wealthiest man in America at that time, had invested heavily in DuPont's new synthetic fiber, nylon, and believed[dubious – discuss] that the replacement of the traditional resource, hemp, was integral to the new product's success. monocotelydonous leaves are the source of these fibers ... hemp (part of plant used as fiber) the bast/soft fibers. This page was last edited on 10 January 2021, at 23:43. https://hempgazette.com/industrial-hemp/hemp-fiber-production Hemp for textile use. Hemp is sometimes confused with the cannabis plants that serve as sources of the drug marijuana and the drug preparation hashish. [141][144] Historical research indicates this fear was unfounded because improvements of the decorticators in the 1930s – machines that separated the fibers from the hemp stem – could not make hemp fiber a cheaper substitute for fibers from other sources. It was also one of the first plants to be spun into usable fiber 50,000 years ago. Line fibre can be incredibly long – depending on the height of the plant, a single strand may be up to 5 metres in length. [34] The first US home made of hemp-based materials was completed in August 2010 in Asheville, North Carolina. A crop grown specifically for fibre will generally produce a higher quality product than a dual-use crop. [citation needed] The raw material was used for the preparation of rope and plugs for the Portuguese ships. Over 30 countries produce industrial hemp, including Australia, Austria, Canada, Chile, China, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, Germany, Greece,[82] Hungary, India, Italy, Japan, Korea, Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, the United Kingdom and Ukraine.[83][84]. During World War II, the U.S. produced a short 1942 film, Hemp for Victory, promoting hemp as a necessary crop to win the war. The major differences between the two types of plants are the appearance, and the amount of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) secreted in a resinous mixture by epidermal hairs called glandular trichomes, although they can also be distinguished genetically. The Committee worked with the provincial government to get research and development assistance and was able to obtain test plot permits from the Canadian government. [12] Another possible source of origin is Assyrian qunnabu, which was the name for a source of oil, fiber, and medicine in the 1st millennium BC. Description And Uses, Texas CBD Vendors Face Massive License Fee Increase, Billy Caldwell’s Seizures Return After Cannabis Medication Confiscated. Hemp is obtained from the Cannabis sativa plant. Western Australia enabled the cultivation, harvest and processing of hemp under its Industrial Hemp Act 2004,[92] New South Wales now issues licences[93] under a law, the Hemp Industry Regulations Act 2008 (No 58), that came into effect as of 6 November 2008. [99] Canadian hemp is cultivated mostly for its food value as hulled hemp seeds, hemp oils, and hemp protein powders, with only a small fraction devoted to production of hemp fiber used for construction and insulation. The dense growth of hemp helps kill weeds, even thistle. The About 73% of the energy in hemp seeds is in the form of fats and essential fatty acids,[21] mainly polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic, oleic, and alpha-linolenic acids. Cotton is a soft fibre that is obtained from cotton plants and grows as a boll. It yields a stiff fibre used in making rope and various other products. Hemp is a sustainable and environmental friendly crop that can provide valuable raw materials to a large number of industrial applications. It takes about 3-4 months for hemp stalks to reach maturity. This can take anywhere from 4 – 6 weeks depending on the weather and must be closely monitored. Wild hemp grows in the western hilly part of Nepal. Nitrogen should not be placed with the seed, but phosphate may be tolerated. [31] In the UK hemp lime was first used in 2000 for the construction of two test dwellings in Haverhill. Since its inception in 1931, the Hemp Breeding Department at the Institute of Bast Crops in Hlukhiv (Glukhov), Ukraine, has been one of the world's largest centers for developing new hemp varieties, focusing on improving fiber quality, per-hectare yields, and low THC content. It can be used to make a wide range of products. Hemp seeds' amino acid profile is comparable to other sources of protein such as meat, milk, eggs, and soy. [72], Cannabis sativa L. subsp. Once separated, the line fibre is cleaned and carded to size, cut and bailed; ready to be further processed and spun. In fact, if it wasn’t for the cotton industry’s influence and the unfair demonising of industrial hemp early last century, many more of us would be wearing hemp clothing and utilising other hemp fabrics today – and the environment would be better off as a result. [132] The Puritans are first known to have cultivated hemp in New England in 1645.[128]. [95], Commercial production (including cultivation) of industrial hemp has been permitted in Canada since 1998 under licenses and authorization issued by Health Canada (9,725 ha in 2004, 5450 ha in 2009). It shouldn’t be confused with hemp oil or hemp milk. Obtaining technical fibre is associated with the destruction of the stem or other part of the plant containing fibre bearing tissues (e.g. sisal is obtained from leaves). The separation method is generally employed. The hemp plant {CannaMs sativa) is an annual, belonging to the nettle family. [22] Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS), which attempt to measure the degree to which a food for humans is a "complete protein", were 0.49–0.53 for whole hemp seed, 0.46–0.51 for hemp seed meal, and 0.63–0.66 for hulled hemp seed.[24]. [1] Along with bamboo, hemp is one of the fastest growing plants[2] on Earth. Hemp benefits crops grown after it. Overall, hemp is arguably superior to other natural fibres, both in terms of cultivation and application. [139], Historically, hemp production had made up a significant portion of antebellum Kentucky's economy. The following video demonstrates a portable decorticator used with another type of plant (jute or kenaf). It is sown in the spring and harvested at the end of the summer when fully ripe. British production is mostly used as bedding for horses; other uses are under development. [55], Hemp crops are tall, have thick foliage, and can be planted densely, and thus can be grown as a smother crop to kill tough weeds. There are many different stitches used to create hemp jewellery, however, the half knot and full knot stitches are most common. [37], A mixture of fiberglass, hemp fiber, kenaf, and flax has been used since 2002 to make composite panels for automobiles. [64], Millennia of selective breeding have resulted in varieties that display a wide range of traits; e.g. In the early 1940s, world production of hemp fiber ranged from 250 000 to 350 000 metric tonnes, Russia was the biggest producer. Yields in Kent County, have averaged 8.75 t/ha (3.5 t/ac). From the hemp plant can come over 25,000 different products! As mechanical technology evolved, separating the fiber from the core was accomplished by crushing rollers and brush rollers, or by hammer-milling, wherein a mechanical hammer mechanism beats the hemp against a screen until hurd, smaller bast fibers, and dust fall through the screen. They can be eaten raw, ground into hemp meal, sprouted or made into dried sprout powder. [91] indica generally has poor fiber quality and female buds from this variety are primarily used for recreational and medicinal purposes. Several arthropods can cause damage or injury to hemp plants, but the most serious species are associated with the Insecta class. Hemp paper does not require the use of toxic bleaching or as many chemicals as wood pulp because it can be whitened with hydrogen peroxide. Hemp (from Old English hænep) is mostly used as a name for low tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) strains of the plant Cannabis sativa, of fiber and/or oilseed varieties. Hemp is used to make many industrial and domestic products including rope, biofuel, clothing, shoes, paper, etc. Hemp =Hemp= is a fiber that is obtained from the hemp plant. Hemp-resin. [76] Other foliar pests, found in both indoor and outdoor crops, include the hemp russet mite, Aculops cannibicola, and cannabis aphid, Phorodon cannabis. [68] Ideally, according to Britain's Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, the herb should be desiccated and harvested towards the end of flowering. Traditionally harvested at full flowering for textile destinations, nowadays hemp is mainly harvested at seed maturity for dual-purpose applications and has a great potential as multipurpose crop. A further process called “scutching” beats and scrapes the fiber bundles, separating more short fiber and the remaining hurd material from the long fiber. Many Kimono designs portray hemp, or asa (Japanese: 麻), as a beautiful plant. The Spaniards brought hemp to the Americas and cultivated it in Chile starting about 1545. There is archaeological evidence cannabis was used for clothing and the seeds were eaten in Japan back to the Jōmon period (10,000 to 300 BC). Hemp fibers can be used to make items including paper, clothing, furnishing fabric, rope, and building materials. According to a case study done by Forbes, hemp businesses and startups have had difficulty marketing and selling non-psychoactive hemp products, as some online advertising platforms and financial institutions do not distinguish between hemp and marijuana. Since hemp is very self-compatible, it can also be grown several years in a row in the same fields (monoculture). Deforestation, particularly the destruction of old growth forests, and the world’s decreasing supply of wild timber resources are today major ecological concerns. [4][5], Although cannabis as a drug and industrial hemp both derive from the species Cannabis sativa and contain the psychoactive component tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), they are distinct strains with unique phytochemical compositions and uses. 3) Jute: Jute is a natural fibre that has been used in the textile industry since centuries. The Hemp fibre or industrial hemp is obtained from the outer layer or the bast of the Cannabis sativa plant, more popularly known as that meant for producing marijuana or hashish. While the Marijuana Tax Act of 1937 had just been signed into law, the United States Department of Agriculture lifted the tax on hemp cultivation during WW II. Typically, hemp contains below 0.3% THC, while cultivars of Cannabis grown for medicinal or recreational use can contain anywhere from 2% to over 20%.[74]. "[125] Many plant fibres are produced as field crops. [15], Hemp seeds are high in complete protein and a great source of iron. Separation of hurd and bast fiber is known as decortication. Hemp yields three to four times more usable fibre per hectare per annum than forests, and hemp doesn't need pesticides or herbicides. [69] In these strains of industrial hemp* the tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content would have been very low. Hemp fiber is suitable for textiles uses and is obtained by mechanical work of the external fibrous part of the stem of the plant. As early as 1619, the first Virginia House of Burgesses passed an Act requiring all planters in Virginia to sow "both English and Indian" hemp on their plantations. Sisal (/ ˈsaɪsəl /, Spanish: [siˈsal]), with the botanical name Agave sisalana, is a species of flowering plant native to southern Mexico but widely cultivated and naturalized in many other countries. About 15% was used in the automotive sector, and 5-6% was used for insulation mats. [71][73] Oilseed and fiber varieties of Cannabis approved for industrial hemp production produce only minute amounts of this psychoactive drug, not enough for any physical or psychological effects. Bast fibres can be found in fibre crops such as hemp, hoop vine, papyrus, nettles, etc. 1929. The fibre is made into bagging and other coarse fabrics and is sometimes mixed with other fibres to improve colour in rope. [21] Hemp seeds are a rich source of dietary fiber (20% DV), B vitamins, and the dietary minerals manganese (362% DV), phosphorus (236% DV), magnesium (197% DV), zinc (104% DV), and iron (61% DV). [7][8], In 2020, the United Nations recommendation to explicitly remove international control from hemp products containing predominantly cannabidiol and not more than 0.2% of THC was rejected by a majority of votes, meaning that hemp and extracts thereof will remain in some legal ambiguity under the current UN conventions. Hemp grown specifically for this purpose is usually harvested 70-90 days after seeding; early in the flowering stage and well before seed is produced. [111] After that, the federal government created a Hemp Farming Pilot Program as a part of the Agricultural Act of 2014. The number of fibre bundles varies from stem to stem and in different parts of … [22] The ratio of the 38.100 grams of polyunsaturated fats per 100 grams is 9.301 grams of omega‑3 to 28.698 grams of omega‑6. This has meant that paper from hemp is still expensive compared to paper from trees. Hemp plants can be vulnerable to various pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, nematodes, viruses and other miscellaneous pathogens. was the spread of the habit of pot-smoking from somewhere in south-central Asia, where the drug-bearing variety of the plant originally occurred. [107], The 2018 Farm Bill, which incorporated the Hemp Farming Act of 2018, removed hemp as a Schedule I drug and instead made it an agricultural commodity.